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DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT METHODS IN GENERAL SURGERY

The diagnosis and treatment methods applied in the general surgery outpatient clinic of our hospital are colonoscopy, endoscopy and ERCP. Correct diagnosis is important, it helps in the correct treatment and various treatment applications speed up the detection of diseases.

Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy as a diagnosis and treatment method is a method applied when there are conditions that do not go well with the intestine and when the patient comes with complaints of constipation, diarrhea, itching in the anal area, bleeding and pain. Since this method applied for colon cancer screening is a diagnostic method, it is also a large part of the treatment. One or two days before the colonoscopy, it is recommended that patients do not eat solid foods, but rather consume watery foods. Before the procedure, laxatives are also used. The aim is to clean the intestines for the operation. If blood thinners are used one week before the procedure, these drugs should be discontinued in order to avoid blood loss due to complications that may occur during the procedure.

Before the colonoscopy application, the patient lies to the left with both legs pulled to chest level. Superficial anesthesia is applied to the patient. While the colonoscope device is delivered to the intestine, it is advanced from the rectum, the last part of the large intestine, to the cecum, the entrance part of the large intestine. By giving air with a colonoscope, it is facilitated to make the inner surface of the intestine visible. Up to the part where the large intestine joins the small intestine, and then the small intestine is also examined. Except in exceptional cases, the process usually takes thirty to forty minutes.

If dangerous conditions such as polyps are detected in colonoscopy as part of the treatment, the physician can intervene with the help of a colonoscope and remove the polyps. If such conditions are detected depending on the patient's complaints, a biopsy can be performed on the patient and a more detailed examination can be provided for diagnosis. After colonoscopy, the patient is taken to the room. The patient may experience gas problems due to the gas given to the intestines.

At least one day of hospitalization is required because it is very important to check the patient after the application. The normal diet can be continued depending on daily routines. In case of any complaints after the application, he/she should consult his/her doctor immediately.

Gastroscopy (Endoscopy)

This method, also known as endoscopy among the people and used to diagnose digestive system disorders, can be applied in patients if they have stomach ulcers, long-term diarrhea or constipation, tumors and gallbladder stones. When applied as a treatment, some special instruments can be added to the endoscopy device. Polyp removal, stopping gastric bleeding and pathology from the tissue that may pose a risk of cancer are performed according to the situation encountered in the patient during endoscopy. Before the endoscopy, the patient is anesthetized and the patient is put to sleep.

The endoscope device is a device with a camera on the tip. With this device, the patient's stomach and duodenum can be seen. This method is quite common in the presence of existing diseases, if any.
If the doctor is faced with an unexpected problem, s/he can take samples during the procedure.
After the procedure, the patient is checked and if there is no adverse situation, s/he can continue his normal routine. Since the controls are important, it is beneficial to have a one-day hospitalization in the hospital. If problems such as weakness, bleeding, vomiting and shortness of breath occur in the patient, a doctor should be consulted.

ERCP

In this method, which is used in the diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder diseases and most often in the disease of gallstones, the patient is given a contrast agent and a cannula passed through the endoscope enters the gallbladder opening and stones, tumors and anomalies in the gallbladder are detected thanks to the contrast agent visible on the X-ray.

The patient, who is taken to the rest room after the procedure, may experience problems such as nausea and sore throat. After starting to be able to swallow comfortably, it is necessary to feed with soft and liquid foods. The transition to solid foods should be slow. There may be recommended medications after the application. There may be a problem of distent due to the air pumped into the pancreas. When unexpected situations are encountered, doctor control is very important.


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